There are 12 features of Java. Sometimes features of Java are also called as Java Buzzwords. Features are as follows:
- Platform Independent
- High performance
Java was designed to be easy for the professional programmer to learn and use effectively. Assuming that you have some programming experience, you will not find Java hard to master. If you already understand the basic concepts of object-oriented programming, learning Java will be even easier.
As you are likely aware, every time you download a “normal” program, you are taking a risk, because the code you are downloading might contain a virus, Trojan horse, or other harmful code. At the core of the problem is the fact that malicious code can cause its damage because it has gained unauthorized access to system resources. For example, a virus program might gather private information, such as credit card numbers, bank account balances, and passwords, by searching the contents of your computer’s local file system. In order for Java to enable applets to be downloaded and executed on the client computer safely, it was necessary to prevent an applet from launching such an attack. Java achieved this protection by confining an applet to the Java execution environment and not allowing it access to other parts of the computer. (You will see how this is accomplished shortly.) The ability to download applets with confidence that no harm will be done and that no security will be breached is considered by many to be the single most innovative aspect of Java.
Portability is a major aspect of the Internet because there are many different types of computers and operating systems connected to it. If a Java program were to be run on virtually any computer connected to the Internet, there needed to be some way to enable that program to execute on different systems. For example, in the case of an applet, the same applet must be able to be downloaded and executed by the wide variety of CPUs, operating systems, and browsers connected to the Internet. It is not practical to have different versions of the applet for different computers. The same code must work on all computers. Therefore, some means of generating portable executable code was needed. As you will soon see, the same mechanism that helps ensure security also helps create portability.
This is one of the important features of java. Object-oriented means we organize our software as a combination of different types of objects that incorporates both data and behaviour. Object-oriented programming(OOPs) is a methodology that simplify software development and maintenance by providing some rules.
Basic concepts of OOPs are:
A platform is the hardware or software environment in which a program runs. There are two types of platforms software-based and hardware-based. Java provides software-based platform. The Java platform differs from most other platforms in the sense that it’s a software-based platform that runs on top of other hardware-based platforms.
It has two components:
- Runtime Environment
- API(Application Programming Interface)
Java is platform independent Java code can be run on multiple platforms e.g.Windows,Linux,Sun Solaris,Mac/OS etc. Java code is compiled by the compiler and converted into bytecode.This bytecode is a platform independent code because it can be run on multiple platforms i.e. Write Once and Run Anywhere(WORA)
The multi-platformed environment of the Web places extraordinary demands on a program, because the program must execute reliably in a variety of systems. Thus, the ability to create robust programs was given a high priority in the design of Java. To gain reliability, Java restricts you in a few key areas to force you to find your mistakes early in program development. At the same time, Java frees you from having to worry about many of the most common causes of programming errors. Because Java is a strictly typed language, it checks your code at compile time. However, it also checks your code at run time. Many hard-to-track-down bugs that often turn up in hard-to-reproduce run-time situations are simply impossible to create in Java. Knowing that what you have written will behave in a predictable way under diverse conditions is a key feature of Java.
Java was designed to meet the real-world requirement of creating interactive, networked programs. To accomplish this, Java supports multithreaded programming, which allows you to write programs that do many things simultaneously. The Java run-time system comes with an elegant yet sophisticated solution for multiprocess synchronization that enables you to construct smoothly running interactive systems. Java’s easy-to-use approach to multithreading allows you to think about the specific behavior of your program, not the multitasking subsystem.
Architecture Neutral is one of the important features of Java. A central issue for the Java designers was that of code longevity and portability. One of the main problems facing programmers is that no guarantee exists that if you write a program today, it will run tomorrow—even on the same machine. Operating system upgrades,
processor upgrades, and changes in core system resources can all combine to make a program malfunction. The Java designers made several hard decisions in the Java language and the Java Virtual Machine in an attempt to alter this situation. Their goal was “write once run anywhere, any time, forever.” To a great extent, this goal was accomplished.
As described earlier, Java enables the creation of cross-platform programs by compiling into an intermediate representation called Java bytecode. This code can be executed on any system that implements the Java Virtual Machine. Most previous attempts at cross-platform solutions have done so at the expense of performance. As explained earlier, the Java bytecode was carefully designed so that it would be easy to translate directly into native machine code for very high performance by using a just-in-time compiler. Java run-time systems that provide this feature lose none of the benefits of the platform-independent code.
Java is faster than traditional interpretation since byte code is “close” to native code still somewhat slower than a compiled language (e.g., C++)
Java is designed for the distributed environment of the Internet because it handles TCP/IP protocols. In fact, accessing a resource using a URL is not much different from accessing a file. Java also supports Remote Method Invocation (RMI). This feature enables a program to invoke methods across a network.
Java programs carry with them substantial amounts of run-time type information that is used to verify and resolve accesses to objects at run time. This makes it possible to dynamically link code in a safe and expedient manner. This is crucial to the robustness of the Java environment, in which small fragments of bytecode may be dynamically updated on a running system.
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